2016高考英语常用语法:有关名词的重要考点

2019-12-02 14:15:13

  有关名词的重要考点
  1. 短文改错题考查名词单复数的使用。
在高考的短文改错题型中,几乎每年都一道涉及名词单复数使用的试题。这类试题本身难度并不大,只是要求考生能根据句意对名词单复数的使用做出简单的判断。不过,在具体做这类题时,考生注意以下几点是有必要的:一是不可数名词通常不能有复数形式,也不能连用不定冠词;二是在通常情况下,单数可数名词不能单独使用,它要么应与冠词、指示代词、不定代词等限定词连用,要么就应用复数。三是注意名词本身的单复数形式应与它的修饰语保体一致。请看以下几道典型的高考改错句:
  (1)… drink some waters from a dream. (waters应改为单数 water)
  (2) They have been to Europe many time. (time 应改为复数 times)
  (3) There are branch library in many villages. (library 应改为复数 libraries)
  (4) ... could come and visit us some times soon. (times应改为单数 time)
  (5) We studies quite a few subject. (subject应改为复数 subjects)
  (6) We often watch football match. (match应改为复数matches)
  (7) … so that I'll get good marks in all my subject. (subject应改为复数 subjects)
  (8) On my way up I was taking picture … (picture应改为复数 pictures)
  (9) Good health is person's mot valuable possession. (应在 person's 前加 a)
  (10) There is public library in every town in Britain. (应在public library 前加 a)
  2. 高考对集合名词的考查。高考考查集合名词主要涉及其可数性、单复数意义、主谓一致、恰当的修饰语等。为了便于理解和记忆,我们将常考集合名词分为以下几类,并分别简述其有关用法特点:
  (1) family(家庭),team(队),class(班),audience(听众)等,其用法特点为:若视为整体,表示单数意义;若考虑其个体成员,表示复数意义。比较:
  This class consists of 45 pupils. 这个班由45个学生组成。
  This class are studying English now. 这个班的学生在学习英语。
  (2) cattle(牛,牲畜),people(人),police(警察)等,其用法特点为:只有单数形式, 但却表示复数意义,用作主语时谓语用复数;不与 a(n) 连用,但可与the连用(表示总括意义和特指)。如:
  People will laugh at you. 人们会笑你的。
  The police are looking for him. 警察在找他。
  For these many cattle were killed. 就因为这个原因宰了不少牲畜。
  注:表示牲畜的头数,用单位词 head(单复数同形)。如:three head of cattle 3头牛,twenty (head of )cattle 20头牛。
  (3) goods(货物), clothes(衣服)等,其用法特点是:只有复数形式(当然也表示复数意义,用作主语时谓语也用复数),但通常不与数词连用。如:
  Such clothes are very expensive. 那样的衣服很贵。
  To whom do these goods belong? 这些书是谁的?
  (4) baggage / luggage(行李), clothing(衣服), furniture(家具), machinery(机器), poetry(诗), scenery(风景), jewelry(珠宝),equipment(设备)等, 其用法特点为:是不可数名词,只用单数形式,不用不定冠词 (当然更不能用数词),没有复数形式。如:
  Our clothing protects us from [against] the cold. 我们的衣服可以御寒。
  Have you checked all your baggage? 你所有行李都托运了吗?
  特别提醒:machinery, poetry, jewelry, scenery 相应的个体可数名词是 machine, poem, jewel, scene。如:a poem / a piece of poetry 一首诗,many machines / much machinery / many pieces of machinery 许多机器。
  (5) 补充说明几个特殊的集合名词:
  ①hair(头发,毛发):指全部头发或毛发时,为集合名词(不可数);指几根头发或毛发时,为个体名词(可数)。如:
  My hair has grown very long. 我的头发已长得很长了。
  The police found two hairs there. 警察在那儿找到了两根头发。
  ②mankind(人类):是一个不可数的集合名词,不用复数形式,也不连用冠词。如:
  This is an invention that benefits mankind. 这是一项造福人类的发明。
  Mankind has its own problems. 人类有自己的问题。
  特别提醒:mankind 表示“人(类)”时,虽不可数,但有时却可以表示复数意义,尤其是当其表语是复数时。如:Mankind are intelligent animals. 人是理智的动物。
  ③fruit(水果):作为集合名词,它通常是不可数的。如:
  He doesn't not eat much fruit. 他不大吃水果。
  He is growing fruit in the country. 他在农村种水果。
  但是,当要表示种类时,它可视为可数名词,即a fruit 指一种水果,fruits 指多种水果。体会:
  Some fruits have thick skins. 有些水果皮很厚。
  The potato is a vegetable, not a fruit. 土豆是一种蔬菜,而不是一种水果。
  3. 根据上下文的语境选择恰当的名词。高考对名词的考查还经常涉及这样一类考题,即要求考生根据所给句子上下文所暗示的语境选择一个最恰当的词语,这类题考查的不一定是要求考生辨析同义词,而是要求考生根据语境的要求选出一个恰当的词语,或构成固定短语或固定搭配,或使句子语意连贯、逻辑通顺。请看两道高考真题:
  1. We have worked out the plan and now we must put it into _____.
  A. fact B. reality C. practice D. deed
  2. Here's my card. Let's keep in _____.
  A. touch B. relation C. connection D. friendship
  第1题选C,构成短语 put … into practice,意为“将…付诸实践”;第2题选A,构成短语keep in touch,意为“保持联系”。